Neonatal Problems and Interventions

The important causes of neonatal mortality are congenital malformations, birth trauma, neonatal infections, and respiratory, metabolic and heart diseases. Although many of the neonatal problems are benign, self-limited and treatable, some are life-threatening and a direct cause of disability and death. Professionals who provide care for children must be aware of these problems, their natural history, their impact on children's heath and their treatment. Birth marks are common and often harmless, but parents need explanation and reassurance. Follow-up appointments are often necessary to ensure the general wellbeing of the affected children. Birth trauma, such as intracranial haemorrhage or arm paralysis, may occur during delivery, and treatment at a specialised unit is usually required. The prognosis of neonatal infections is generally poor, with high mortality unless treatment is started promptly and adequately. Respiratory diseases occur mainly in low birth-weight infants who may require mechanical ventilation. Metabolic and heart diseases are rare, but early detection is essential to ensure a high survival rate.

  • Breathing problems
  • Congenital heart defects
  • Anemia
  • Feeding issues
  • Gastroschisis
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Inability to control body heat
  • Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)
  • Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH)
  • Jaundice
  • Macrosomia
  • Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)
  • Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)
  • Sepsis

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